A CARBON SINK
Adopting production systems that will increase the amount and rate of increase of CO2 sinks, which are brought to the agenda by global warming and climate change, has become an issue of interest to all sectors in the world. The Kyoto Protocol and all other official texts on climate change suggest that agricultural forestry is the only agricultural system that can resist warming, drought and precipitation, intensified wind and hail. The aim here is to draw attention to the fact that agroforestry, a system that local farmers have applied as an ancestral tradition in Turkey, has been a new area of research and application for local scientific research for some time.
Key words: Agroforestry, carbon, climate change
The debate on reducing C emissions, which began with climate change being the most important agenda, is being discussed in countries all over the world. Although it is now accepted that there should be a different system of production, the costs of the change are particularly intimidating to everyone involved in the production sector. The agricultural sector, whose impact on C emissions is considered to be very important, is also obliged to determine the path and take steps in this change.
Afforestation, which plays the most important role in the return of C emission to the soil, is carefully applied in various regions of the world, especially in tropical and sensitive areas exposed to high temperatures. Because it is known that the tree entity is the only entity on earth that connects C to the soil in the highest order (Nair and Kumar ,2011).For this reason, the afforestation of agricultural areas, that is to produce by providing tree-crop unity in agricultural land, “agroforestry (decimation) “ is shown as the only agricultural production system that can adapt and be flexible in all official texts of climate change, especially Kyoto Protocol.
In the last 10 years, agroforestry has become an important area of research all over the world since climate change and the attitude of C02 and C in the atmosphere in Land Management is concerned. However, this system is a system of production in Turkey where the local farmers are not foreign. Poplar trees surrounding wheat fields in Central Anatolia, beans planted under nuts in the Black Sea or bostans created under fruit trees in the Aegean are an example of this type of production. Because agroforestry is included in local (indigenous) agricultural knowledge
The importance of the tree for the soil is that the tree-soil relationship with the win-win technique will benefit the practitioner. After the tree is attached to the soil, it serves the development and biological viability of the soil structure with the special secretions it produces from its roots. Photosynthesis by the tree supports soil C stock for long-term use and safety purposes ( Nair and Kumar ,2010) with the help of roots and debris falling from above-ground branches. Soil organic matter, which is the equilibrium element of the soil, forms the accumulated C and this:
1.Water attitude in soil
2. Improvement in soil physical and chemical elements
3. Balancing the use of nutrients in the product
5. Product quality
6. Product health and balance
7. Effective in protecting against erosion (Nair, 1993)
In addition, agricultural forestry “Big Brother” to the product in the land by making the product high temperature, strong wind, hail and rainfall less damage to help. In other words, the product is protected by trees on the land. However, it is necessary to take the necessary measures to prevent water and nutrient competition between trees and crops.
We know that increasing temperature due to the effects of climate change causes degradation of organic matter in the soil, causing it to become resistant to erosion and loss of soil vitality (Nair,1993) . It is therefore a fact that agricultural forestry systems are more widely used in tropical regions where the temperature is high.
Its contributions to climate change protection and soil have enabled this system to be used as a rural development tool. The most effective and cheapest agricultural forestry is the revitalization of the production that has been destroyed in degraded soils. Because the trees on the land at different times of the year give the farmer the chance to buy a second crop, which means profit. In addition, increasing biodiversity helps flatten the fauna and flora of the region, and increase in crop quality is observed along with decrease in plant diseases and pests over time. Rural development efforts, especially in rural areas of Africa, by increasing the presence of trees, are succeeding in a short time. These works, which are made using all-natural agricultural resources, are also notable because of their low entourage.
Today, afforestation works are being carried out in Turkey. However, while a system that is as different as the logic of agricultural forestry, efficient and profitable in the long term is known, it is necessary to evaluate again our agricultural areas which are open to all kinds of dangers of climate change and our reforestation areas which are mostly established as monocultures.
1.Nair PKR (1993), An İntroduction To Agroforestry, Kluwer Academic PublishersDORDRECHT / BOSTON / LONDON
2.NAir PKR, Nair VD,Kumar BM, Showalter JM (2010) Carbon sequstration in agrforestry systems Adv Agron 108:237-307
3.Nair PKR, B.M. Kumar (2011), Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforetsry Systems, Springer
Author: Berrak Birgili
Agricultural Engineer, M.Sc.