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TURKEY: POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCTS SEMI ANNUAL

According to the Turkish poultry sector, chicken meat production in Turkey in 2021 is expected to grow
1.5 percent to 2.16 million metric tons (MMT) as demand for affordable protein sources to a growing
population increases and the industry focuses on exporting to new markets. This growth forecast is
lower than previous sector expectations due to the negative impacts of Covid-19 on domestic
consumption and exports, and high feed prices, which limit production. In 2021, Turkish chicken meat
exports are expected to grow 4 percent to 457,000 metric tons (MT) with growth in new export markets
such as the Philippines, China, and Libya, despite continuing challenges with exports to neighboring
countries (particularly Iraq), high production costs in correlation with high feed prices, and Covid-19
logistic difficulties. Despite these struggles, Turkey aims to increase its exports, especially to China and
Lebanon in 2021.

Production:

According to the Turkish poultry sector, chicken meat production in Turkey in 2021 is expected to grow
1.5 percent to 2.16 million metric tons (MMT) as demand for affordable protein sources to a growing
population increases and the industry focuses on exporting to new markets. This growth forecast is
lower than previous sector expectations due to the negative impacts of Covid-19 on domestic
consumption and exports, and high feed prices, which limit production.

The Turkish poultry sector is dependent on foreign supplies for feed, which is the main input cost for
poultry operations (70 percent of the total expenditure). On February 27, 2021, the Ministry of
Agriculture and Forestry (MinAF) approved four soybean events and one corn event for feed as a result
of the applications of the Turkish Poultry Meat Producers and Breeders Association (Besd-Bir) to
approve those genes. For more information, please click here. Although approval of GE soybeans and
corn events for feed is welcomed by the Turkish poultry industry, the high cost of feed imports will
continue to be a main concern of the sector.

The poultry production growth rate, which averaged 6-10 percent per year for the last 15 years, is also
hampered by the lack of supply of imported breeding stocks (day old chicks and hatching eggs). Turkish
poultry producers are currently facing higher prices for imported breeding stocks due to greater demand
from Russia and Middle Eastern countries, which increases global prices. While Turkey is selfsufficient for poultry meat and egg production, almost all of its breeding stocks are imported from the
UK, Canada, and the U.S., especially for broilers and turkey stock. Turkey has been attempting to create
its own pure-line broiler breeding stock by cross-breeding 5 (five) imported broiler pure-lines with the
resulting Anatolian-T for use as a domestic broiler pure-line stock to reduce import demand, but this
plan is still in development.

In 2020, Turkey produced 2.14 MMT of chicken meat, almost the same as 2019. Growth has been
stymied by high feed prices dependent on imports and the depreciation of the Turkish lira, which makes imported feed raw materials and breeding inputs more expensive. The Covid-19 pandemic, economic
instability, and export restrictions of poultry products to Iraq have caused poultry operations to limit
their production capacity. Following the same trend, slaughtered broiler numbers reduced only 0.5
percent in 2020 when compared with the previous year.

Broiler feed prices have been steadily increasing while broiler meat production has been stagnating for
the past two years. In 2020, broiler feed prices were 60 percent greater than the previous year’s prices.
Turkey produced 5.4 MMT of broiler feed in 2020 for poultry meat production. The main inputs for
poultry feed are corn and soybeans, which are both imported products. Turkey grows soybeans, corn,
and a significant amount of wheat but not enough to meet the demands for the poultry sector.

Consumption:

In 2021, chicken meat consumption per capita is estimated at 20.6 kg which is barely higher than 2020,
which was at 20.5 kg. per capita. While chicken is the most popular meat and the primary and cheapest
source of protein in Turkey, consumption per capita in 2020 was the same as the previous year due to
Covid-19 measures such as curfews in the spring and movement restrictions in the summer, two seasons
during which poultry meat consumption in Turkey is usually high due to the popularity of barbecuing.
In 2019 and 2020, chicken meat consumption growth expectations were not met due to high market
prices. Consumer poultry prices in 2020 were 30 percent more than 2019, and the consumer price index
increased to 25 percent in 2020.

Post expects egg consumption per capita will be remain the same in 2021 as retail prices are decreasing
from the dramatic high price point (82% year-over-year price inflation) reached at the end of December 2020. Egg consumption per capita was 214 units in 2020.

Trade:

Imports and Transshipments:

Turkey’s domestic industry produces enough poultry meat for domestic needs. Additionally, there is a
high custom tariff rate of 100 percent for poultry meats (50 percent for livers under HS code 020713)
and 135 percent for poultry products under 160232 in order to discourage poultry meat import to Turkey
and protect the domestic industry.
However, due to the country’s location, Turkey serves as a transshipment hub for poultry meat to other
countries in the Middle East. Currently, there are no bans on products from any U.S. states related to the
export or transit of poultry and poultry products to Turkey. According to the custom agencies in Turkey,
transit poultry shipments may be stored at custom warehouses in Turkey for a certain time of period
according to the terms of the buyer’s contract and transportation arrangements; otherwise, most of the
poultry meat shipments that transit Turkey are being shipped to Iraq or Afghanistan. Turkey imports
hatching eggs mostly from the UK, U.S., and Canada, and day-old chicks mostly from Germany, the
UK, and the U.S., which is crucial for the sustainability of the domestic sector.

Exports:

In 2021, Turkish chicken meat exports are expected to grow 4 percent to 457,000 metric tons (MT) with
growth in new export markets such as the Philippines, China, and Libya, despite continuing challenges
with exports to neighboring countries (particularly Iraq), high production costs in correlation with high
feed prices, and Covid-19 logistic difficulties. Despite these struggles, Turkey aims to increase its
exports, especially to China and Lebanon, in 2021.

Source: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Authors

About İsmail Uğural

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