The Board of the Ministry of Agriculture considered the results of the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2021 and tasks for 2022, according to an article published by primeminister.kz.
Main macroeconomic indicators of the agro-industrial complex…
In January-December 2021, the volume of gross agricultural output decreased by 2.4% and amounted to 7.4 trillion tenge. The reason for the decline is the abnormal drought last year, due to which the volume of crop production decreased by 6.7% (4.2 trillion tenge), although livestock production achieved an increase of 3.6% (3.1 trillion tenge). Food production for the specified period increased by 1.9% and amounted to 2.2 trillion tenge.
There is a steady trend of investment in the fixed capital of agriculture. Thus, the volume of investments in fixed capital of agriculture increased by 33.3% and amounted to 773.2 billion tenge, in food production increased by 3.1% and amounted to 114.4 billion tenge.
Labor productivity per person employed in agriculture for 9 months of 2021 amounted to 2,153.5 thousand tenge (for 9 months of 2020 – 1,823.5 thousand tenge).
Development of crop production in 2021
In 2021, the sown area of all agricultural crops amounted to 22.9 million hectares, which is 343.3 thousand hectares more than in 2020. Of these, grains and legumes – 16.0 million hectares (more by 236.9 thousand hectares), including wheat – 12.9 million hectares (more by 749.9 thousand hectares). Oilseeds are located on an area of 3.1 million hectares (more by 197.3 thousand hectares), fodder crops – by 3.1 million hectares (less by 82.8 thousand hectares), cotton – by 109.9 thousand hectares ( less by 16.0 thousand ha), rice – by 96.8 thousand ha (less by 7.3 thousand ha), sugar beet – by 21.7 thousand ha (more by 0.9 thousand ha) , potatoes – by 195.8 thousand hectares (more by 1.4 thousand hectares) and vegetable crops – by 168.6 thousand hectares (more by 5.0 thousand hectares) and gourds – by 110.0 thousand hectares ha (more by 8.1 thousand ha).
In accordance with the data of the Bureau of National Statistics of the Agency for Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as BNS ASPiR RK), in 2021, the indicative indicators of memorandums on diversifying the structure of sown areas were achieved for the total sown area of agricultural crops in the republic (by 831.9 thousand hectares exceeds the indicators of memorandums) for grain and legumes (more by 2.0 million hectares), oilseeds (more by 143.0 thousand hectares), vegetables (more by 8.6 thousand hectares) and melons (more by 10.6 thousand hectares). Indicative indicators were not achieved for potatoes on 6.7 thousand hectares and fodder crops – on 1.3 million hectares.
At the same time, instead of reducing the area of wheat against the indicator of the memorandum, it was exceeded by 2.8 million hectares. The area under rice sowing was exceeded by 11.5 thousand hectares against the indicator of the memorandum. The area of cotton is at the level of the indicator of the memorandum.
According to the BNS ASPIR RK, in 2021, 16.4 million tons of grain and leguminous crops were harvested in weight after processing (3.6 million tons less than in 2020) with an average yield of 10.4 centners per hectare (less than 2.4 centners /ha). Of these, 11.8 million tons of wheat were harvested (less by 2.4 million tons) with a yield of 9.3 centners per hectare (less than 2.5 centners per hectare).
In 2021, 2.4 million tons of oilseeds were harvested (less by 126.4 thousand tons) with a yield of 8.3 centners per hectare (less than 1.2 centners per hectare), 332.2 thousand tons of sugar beet (less by 134.2 thousand tons) with a yield of 275.5 q/ha less by 47.7 q/ha), 290.4 thousand tons of cotton (less by 36.2 thousand tons) with a yield of 26.4 q/ha ha (more by 0.5 c/ha), 503.8 thousand tons of rice (less by 53.0 thousand tons) with a yield of 52.1 c/ha (less by 2.3 c/ha less), 4 million tons of potatoes (more by 24.8 thousand tons) with a yield of 207.4 centners per hectare (more by 0.7 centners per hectare), 4.5 million tons of vegetables (more by 171.2 thousand tons) with productivity 268.0 c/ha (more by 2.1 c/ha), 2.8 million tons of gourds (more by 353.5 thousand tons).
According to the regional agricultural departments, in 2022 the sown area of all agricultural crops will be more than 22.9 million hectares, which is 13.5 thousand hectares more than in 2021. Of these, cereals and legumes – 15.8 million hectares (less by 272.9 thousand hectares), including wheat – 12.5 million hectares (less by 357.6 thousand hectares). Oilseeds are planned to be planted on an area of more than 2.9 million hectares (less by 160.1 thousand hectares), fodder crops – by 3.7 million hectares (more by 446.9 thousand hectares), cotton – by 115.2 thousand hectares. hectares (more by 5.5 thousand hectares), sugar beet – by 26.3 thousand hectares (more by 4.6 thousand hectares), potatoes – by 200.2 thousand hectares (more by 5.0 thousand hectares). hectares), vegetables – by 168.1 thousand hectares (at the level of 2021) and gourds – by 107.2 thousand hectares (less by 3.3 thousand hectares).
The use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides
In 2021, according to the akimats of the regions, the application of mineral fertilizers amounted to 626.5 thousand tons, or 24% of the scientific need. Last year, 28.6 billion tenge was allocated to subsidize the cost of purchased fertilizers, which made it possible to reduce the price of 493.8 thousand tons of mineral fertilizers (79% of the purchase volumes).
Every year, the North-Kazakhstan region is actively increasing the volume of fertilizer use. At the end of 2021, 160.0 thousand tons of mineral fertilizers were applied in the region, which is 26% of the total republican value. Also, the Kyzylorda region can be noted, which in recent years has almost completely covered the scientific need for fertilizers (the application is 85-87% of the need).
In 2021, at the expense of the program for subsidizing the cost of pesticides, chemical treatment was carried out on an area of 27.9 million hectares, 16.6 million liters of pesticides were subsidized. For these purposes, 32.3 billion tenge was allocated from the local and republican budgets.
In 2022, according to local executive bodies, the application of mineral fertilizers is planned at the level of 695.0 thousand tons, which is 68.5 thousand tons more than in 2021. For 2022, 26.8 billion tenge are provided for subsidizing fertilizers in the local budgets of the regions. For 2022, 31.7 billion tenge is provided to subsidize the cost of pesticides.
For 2021, the local budgets of the regions provide 11.5 billion tenge to subsidize the development of seed production in the local budgets of the regions, and an additional 4.3 billion tenge was allocated from the republican budget. In order to ensure the availability of seeds for agricultural producers (hereinafter referred to as SHPP) engaged in the production of tomatoes and cucumbers in protected ground, subsidies for tomato and cucumber seeds have been included since 2021.
The measures taken in the field of seed production have improved the quality of the seed material used. Thus, according to the akimats of the regions, the volume of use of low-quality seeds in 2021 decreased compared to 2020 from 181 thousand tons to 76 thousand tons, or 2.4 times, the share of use of elite seeds increased from 6.8% in 2020 to 7.7% in 2021.
It should be noted that over the past five years, there has been an increase in the percentage of provision of seed producers with sowing equipment from 70% to 89.4%, harvesting from 80% to 92%, seed cleaning from 63% to 81.4%.
At the same time, the growth rate of updating the material and technical base of seed producers has been in recent years. So, in almost all regions of the republic there are advanced seed-growing farms equipped with modern seed-cleaning complexes. Modern seed cleaning lines are available from 32 seed producers.
For 2022, 11.8 billion tenge are provided in the local budgets of the regions to subsidize the development of seed production. According to the operational information of the akimats of the regions, as of February 7 this year. 2.3 million tons of seeds were filled up, which is 100.8% of the plan, of which 2.0 million tons of grain crops (101.3% of the plan), oilseeds – 89.1 thousand tons (96.2% of the plan) to the plan), fodder – 15.3 thousand tons (80.4% of the plan), potatoes – 237.3 thousand tons (99.9% of the plan).
For the sowing campaign in agricultural formations, there are 143.3 thousand tractors, 4.7 thousand units of high-performance sowing complexes, 76.9 thousand seeders, 221.2 thousand tillage implements.
The presence in the republic of more than 4,675 units of modern sowing complexes, simultaneously performing several technological operations, makes it possible to sow 70% of the area of grain crops. The readiness of the specified equipment for February 1 this year. is about 90%.
The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter – the Ministry of Agriculture), in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Regulation of the Production and Turnover of Certain Types of Oil Products”, together with the akimats of the regions, determined the need for diesel fuel for sowing this year.
This year, the demand of the regions for diesel fuel for sowing work amounted to 400.0 thousand tons, which is 20.0 thousand tons more than the amount allocated last year. The difference is largely due to the need for agrotechnical work (closing moisture, etc.) on additional areas.
The need of the regions with their respective calculations January 6 this year. sent to the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for consideration and approval of the Shipment Schedule, as well as determining a fixed price for the allocated volumes of cheaper diesel fuel.
In 2021, according to the regional akimats, the area of irrigated land used was 1,527 thousand hectares, which is 16.8 thousand hectares more than in 2020.
In accordance with the data of the BNS ASPIR RK, in general, over the past 6 years, crop production has shown positive dynamics, while there are negative dynamics for individual crops. So, if in 2020 the crop was harvested on irrigated lands on 1.2 million hectares, then in 2021 this figure amounted to 1.4 million hectares.
Thus, the gross harvest for certain main agricultural crops on irrigated lands for 2021 is as follows: cereals (including rice) and legumes – 1739.3 thousand tons, which is 23.8% more than in 2020 (1404.9 thousand . tons), sugar beet – 331.4 thousand tons, which is 44.8% more than in 2020 (228.8 thousand tons), raw cotton – 290.4 thousand tons, which is 10.8% less than the level of 2020 (325.6 thousand tons), vegetables – 2701.4 thousand tons, which is 23.8% more than the level of 2020 (2181.7 thousand tons), melons – 2332.3 thousand tons, which is 23.1% more than the level of 2020 (1894.2 thousand tons), oilseeds – 244.9 thousand tons, which is 65.9% more than the level of 2020 (147.6 thousand tons).
The area of irrigated land on which water-saving technologies have been introduced in the republic in 2021 amounted to 258 thousand hectares, which is 37 thousand hectares more than in 2020.
In accordance with the National Project for the Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2021-2025 (hereinafter referred to as the National Agro-Industrial Complex Project), in 2022, the area of irrigated land on which water-saving technologies will be introduced is planned to be increased to 265 thousand hectares.
As part of subsidizing the cost of water supply services, 1,938 million tenge was disbursed in 2021, which made it possible to subsidize 1,010 agricultural enterprises. At the same time, the volume of subsidized water amounted to 2,783 m3.
Monitoring and assessment of the reclamation state of irrigated lands covers 1566.4 thousand hectares of irrigated lands, including constant reclamation monitoring in the Almaty region – 584.3 thousand hectares, Zhambyl – 140.0 thousand hectares, Turkestan – 574.4 thousand. hectares (including 25.3 thousand hectares of irrigated land in the territory of Shymkent) and Kyzylorda – 250 thousand hectares. In addition, environmental monitoring at IPID-1 facilities was carried out in East Kazakhstan (4.8 thousand ha), Akmola (1.2 thousand ha), Pavlodar (3.6 thousand ha), West Kazakhstan (2, 2 thousand ha), Karaganda (0.9 thousand ha) regions and at the IPID-2 facilities in Zhambyl (5.0 thousand ha) and Turkistan regions (67.3 thousand ha).
In the reporting year 2021, 761.4 thousand hectares (49%) were classified as having a good ameliorative condition. Lands with a satisfactory ameliorative condition are represented on an area of 477.0 thousand hectares (31%). Lands with unsatisfactory ameliorative condition are allocated on an area of 310.3 thousand hectares or 20% of the total controlled area of irrigated lands.
The main share (200.2 thousand ha) of irrigated lands with unsatisfactory reclamation conditions are located in the Turkistan region, in particular in the Maktaaral, Zhetysay, Shardarinsky and Otyrar regions, where the reclamation condition of irrigated lands depends on the geological structure of the area, as well as hydrological and irrigation factors.
An analysis of the reclamation state of irrigated lands over the past five years shows that areas with unsatisfactory reclamation conditions have decreased from 316.7 thousand ha to 310.3 thousand ha.
This is due to the restoration and reconstruction of irrigation and collector-drainage networks as part of large investment projects and operating costs of the water management organizations themselves, as well as due to improved compliance with a set of agrotechnical measures by agricultural producers through government support measures.
Monitoring and assessment of the ameliorative state of irrigated lands in 2022 is planned to cover 1574.1 thousand hectares of irrigated lands.
At the end of 2021, in the field of processing fruits and vegetables, production growth amounted to 154.6%, while there is a decrease in the production of flour and cereal products, starches and starch products, and vegetable and animal oils and fats (94.7% and 96.4%, respectively).
In physical terms, in 2021 compared to 2020, the production of cane sugar increased by 2.8 times (from 67.4 thousand to 191.1 thousand tons), processed potatoes by 4.5 times (from 449 tons to 2035 tons ), fruit and vegetable juices by 13.1% (from 58.9 thousand tons to 66.6 thousand tons), processed rice by 7.5% (from 196 thousand to 210.7 thousand tons), starch corn by 3.3% (from 13.7 thousand to 14.1 thousand tons), molasses by 42.7% (from 36.4 thousand to 52.6 thousand tons), gluten by 23.9% (from 6.1 thousand to 7.6 thousand tons).
At the same time, there is a decrease in the production of flour by 7.7% (from 3,352.4 thousand tons to 3,093.5 thousand tons), vegetable oil by 7.3% (from 486.3 thousand to 450.6 thousand tons), crackers and biscuits, confectionery and cakes with long shelf life by 4.3% (from 115.0 thousand to 110.0 thousand tons), pasta by 11% (from 179.5 thousand to 159 .8 thousand tons).
Cereal production remained at the level of 2020 (84 thousand tons).
For 11 months of 2021, the export of processed rice amounted to 106.2 thousand tons (an increase of 11.7%), cereals 13.7 thousand tons (an increase of 8.7%), pasta 59.9 thousand tons (an increase of 13.9%).
Under the program for subsidizing the costs of processing enterprises, 1 deep processing enterprise received subsidies in the amount of 200 million tenge.
Oilseed processing projects were put into operation in the Akmola region with a capacity of 230 thousand tons of raw materials processing per year and in the East Kazakhstan region with a capacity of 330 thousand tons of raw materials per year, a line for the production of bioethanol by BioOperation LLP was commissioned in North Kazakhstan region.
In 2022, it is planned to develop a new Roadmap for the processing of agricultural products, update passports as part of the investment subsidy program, as well as amend the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on biofuels in terms of expanding the scope of biofuels.
In 2022, it is planned to introduce new projects:
- Bakha Sone LLP with a capacity of 6 thousand tons of grain processing per year (Akmola region);
- LLP Natizhe-Tatti with a capacity of 5.0 thousand tons of confectionery per year (Nur-Sultan);
- LLP Elnur Adil Group with a capacity of 7 thousand tons of pasta per year;
- Altyn Shygys LLP with a capacity of 140,000 thousand tons of oilseeds processing per year;
- LLP Agrotechmash with a capacity of 4 thousand tons of pasta per year.